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Program Detail

Release Date: April-22-09
Credit Expiration Date: June-09-10


Robert A. Hauser, MD, MBA
Professor of Neurology, Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology
University of South Florida
Director, Parkinsonís Disease & Movement Disorders Center
Clinical Chair, Signature Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience
University of South Florida
Tampa, FL

Bernard Ravina, MD, MSCE
Associate Professor of Neurology
Director, Movement & Inherited Neurological Disorders Unit
University of Rochester Medical Center,
Rochester, NY

Credit Hours



Online Presentation

Program Description


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease diagnosed by the presence of rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Treatment includes pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches and, in some patients, surgical therapy. PD has traditionally been considered a motor disorder, with recommended treatments defined by and addressing motor symptoms.

PD staging traditionally has been based on motor symptoms. However, PD specialists are now recognizing the importance of non-motor symptoms, as their presentation can antedate the classic PD symptoms used for diagnosis. Moreover, PD patients often experience comorbid disorders such as depression, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, dementia, hallucinations, or psychosis. Clinicians need to know how to effectively manage these symptoms, especially when they are debilitating or disruptive to others.

For decades, PD pharmacotherapy has focused on dopamine modulation, but the increased appreciation of non-motor symptoms, along with advances in neuroimaging, pathophysiology of PD, and clinical trial design, has led to research into possible mechanisms of neuroprotection or disease modification as PD treatments.

This program will describe how healthcare providers who care for patients with Parkinsonís disease can initiate treatments based on symptomatology and adjust treatment plans as the clinical presentation evolves. Additionally, this program will identify recent schools of thought regarding the concept of disease modification, review important precautions with anti-parkinsonian drugs, and discuss unmet needs of disease management.

Program Developer/Facilitator


Target Audience

This program has been developed specifically for general neurologists, movement disorder specialists, internists, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this educational activity, the participant should be able to:

  1. Identify early clinical features of Parkinsonís disease, including risk factors and non-motor symptoms.
  2. Outline pharmacologic management strategies for early, moderate, and advanced Parkinsonís disease.
  3. Discuss the role of deep brain stimulation in the management of Parkinsonís disease.
  4. Discuss data from recent clinical studies that explore disease-modifying interventions.


It is the policy of AKH Inc. to ensure independence, balance, objectivity, scientific rigor, and integrity in all of its continuing education activities. The faculty must disclose to the participants any significant relationships with commercial interests whose products or devices may be mentioned in the activity or with the commercial supporter of this continuing education activity. Identified conflict of interest is resolved by AKH prior to accreditation of the activity. Faculty members are expected to openly disclose any off-label, experimental, or investigational use of drugs or devices in their presentations. AKH planners and reviewers have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Dr. Ravina discloses serving as a consultant for Acadia, Edison Pharmaceuticals, Link, Teva Neuroscience, Upsher-Smith, Ipsen and Vernalis. He reports receiving research support from Acadia, Medivation, and Boehringer-Inghelheim.

Dr. Hauser discloses: serving on advisory boards for Allergan Sales LLC, Bayer-Schering Pharma AG, Boehringer-Ingelheim France, Cephalon Inc., Eisai Ltd, Elan Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, Impax Laboratories Inc, Kyowa Pharmaceutical Inc, Merck KgaA, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Pharmacia, Schwarz Pharma, Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Teva Neuroscience, and Vernalis; serving as a consultant for Allergan Sales LLC, Bayer Schering AG, Biovail Pharmaceuticals Inc, Boehringer-Ingelheim France, CombinatoRx, Eisai Ltd, EMD Serono Inc, Genzyme Corporation, GlaxoSmithKline, HealthCare Research and Consulting, Impax Laboratories Inc, Kyowa Pharmaceutical Inc, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, Prestwick Pharmaceuticals Inc, Schering Plough Research Institute, Schwarz Pharma, Teva Neuroscience,and Valent Pharmaceuticals International; receiving grant support from Acadia, Berlex Labs, Biogen Idec, Boehringer-Ingelheim France, Boston Life Sciences, Cephalon Inc, Daiichi Asubio Pharmaceuticals Inc, Eisai Medical Research Inc, GE Healthcare, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyowa Pharmaceutical Inc, Mentor Corporation, Merck KgaA, Merz Pharmaceuticals, Ovation Pharmaceuticals, Parkinsonís Institute, Schering Plough Research Institute, Skye Pharma, Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Teva Neuroscience, UCB Pharmaceuticals Inc, Vernalis, Vivometrics Inc, and Wellness Pharmaceuticals; and serving on speakersí bureaus for Allergan Sales LLC, Bertak Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer-Ingelheim France, Centapharm Inc, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Schwarz Pharma, Scienta Healthcare Education, Teva Neuroscience, UCB Pharmaceuticals Inc, United BioSource Corporation, and Vernalis.

Credit Statements

Physicians: This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of AKH Inc. and Medical Communications Media, Inc. AKH Inc. is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

AKH Inc. designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Creditô. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Nurse Practitioners: AKH Inc. is accredited by the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners as an approved provider of nurse practitioner continuing education. Provider number: 030803. AKH Inc. designates this educational activity for 1.0 contact hour which includes 0.75 pharmacology contact hour.

Physician Assistants: AAPA accepts Category 1 credit from AOACCME. Prescribed credit from AAFP, and AMA Category 1 CME credit for the PRA from organizations accredited by ACCME.

Participants must successfully complete the post-test (70% or higher) and submit an evaluation to receive credit.

Commercial Support Statements

Supported by an educational grant from Teva Neuroscience.


Please turn off all pop-up blockers.

  1. Click on the "Start program" icon. If you are not already logged in to the site, this will bring you to the login/registration page where you will be able to register as a new member or check existing registration information. When ready, click on the "Continue to Program" icon at the bottom of the screen.
  2. Complete the short survey and click on "done."

  3. The next screen will permit you to check for or download the Flash player required to run this program and to begin the program presentation. This activity will require approximately 60 minutes to complete.
  4. After the program has finished, click on the "Post-test" button. Complete the short survey and click on "done."
  5. Instructions for completing and submitting the post-test and program evaluation are provided on the post-test screen. A credit certificate will be awarded for a score of 70% or better and may be printed immediately after passing the post-test.

Certificate Fee



None of the contents of this activity may be reproduced in any form without prior written permission of the publisher. The opinions expressed in this activity are those of the speakers and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or recommendations of their affiliated institutions, the publisher, AKH Inc., or Teva Neuroscience. Any medications or other diagnostic or treatment procedures discussed by the program speakers should not be utilized by clinicians without evaluation of their patientsí conditions and of possible contraindications or risks and without a review of any applicable manufacturerís product information and comparison with the recommendations of other authorities.

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