Lucie Clapp, PhD
Professor of Vascular Physiology
Deputy Post Graduate Tutor
Department of Medicine
James R. Klinger, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine
Division of Pulmonary, Sleep and Critical Care Medicine
Rhode Island Hospital
Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Myung H. Park, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine
Director, Pulmonary Vascular Disease Program
Division of Cardiology
University of Maryland School of Medicine
Brendan J. R. Whittle, BPharm, PhD, DSc
Professor of Applied Pharmacology
William Harvey Research Institute
Barts and the London School of Medicine
Queen Mary, University of London
AMA PRA Category 1 Credits TM. Medium
NOTE: This activity was presented on April 14, 2011, in conjunction with the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation's 31st Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions. Participants who received credit for attending the live presentation on that date are not eligible to receive credit for this online release.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) comprises a group of diseases characterized by vascular proliferation and a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance that ultimately leads to right ventricular failure and early mortality. Three classes of drugs acting on different pathways related to vasodilation and vascular remodeling have been approved for the treatment of PAH in the last 15 years: prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists, and type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Over 320 clinical trials on the management of PAH are currently registered with the U.S. National Institutes of Health, promising that even newer therapies and guidelines for existing therapies are forthcoming. Clinicians, however, are struggling to integrate this wave of new research into effective evidence-based approaches to therapy.
In spite of the remarkable increase in available treatment options for PAH, their effect on the outcomes in PAH patients is not clear. The overall mortality rate associated with PAH did not change significantly between 1980 and 2002, although improved survival rates have been observed with some treatments. Prompt diagnosis and regular monitoring are important factors in patient outcomes.
This interactive presentation will challenge clinicians to take a more active role in the evaluation and management of PAH and to increase their knowledge of the latest available evidence. Improved education and awareness of recent findings and current recommendations can lead to substantial improvements in patient care. Target Audience
This educational activity is designed to meet the needs of physicians who treat patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
Upon completion of this educational activity, the participant should be able to:
Identify some of the major challenges associated with guideline-driven care for patients with PAH.
Describe the evolution and role of prostanoids in the treatment of PAH.
Discuss the evolving science behind the role of prostanoids on antiproliferative effects, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular remodeling.
Evaluate the evidence for combination drug therapy in patients with PAH.
It is the policy of AKH Inc. to ensure independence, balance, objectivity, scientific rigor, and integrity in all of its continuing education activities. The faculty must disclose to the participants any significant relationships with commercial interests whose products or devices may be mentioned in the activities or with the commercial supporter of these continuing education activities. Identified conflict of interest is resolved by the providers prior to accreditation of the activities. AKH Inc. and Medical Communications Media, Inc. planners and reviewers have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.
Dr. Clapp discloses that she has served on the speakers' bureau for United Therapeutics Corporation, served as a consultant for CoNCERT Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cytokinetics, USA, and United Therapeutics Corporation, and conducted contracted research for the British Heart Foundation, the Medical Research Council, Pfizer Inc., and United Therapeutics Corporation.
Dr. Klinger discloses that he has served on the speakers' bureaus of Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Gilead Sciences, and United Therapeutics Corporation, served as a consultant for Bayer and United Therapeutics Corporation, and conducted contracted research for Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Bayer Corporation, Gilead Sciences, and United Therapeutics Corporation.
Dr. Park discloses that she has served as a consultant for Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Gilead Sciences, and United Therapeutics Corporation and conducted contracted research for Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Gilead Sciences, and United Therapeutics Corporation.
Dr. Whittle discloses that he has served as a consultant for United Therapeutics Corporation.
Peer Review: Elizabeth Paczolt, MD. Dr. Paczolt has no financial relationships to disclose
Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of pharmaceutical agents. Some uses of these agents may not have been approved by the FDA. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of AKH Inc. and Medical Communications Media, Inc. AKH Inc. is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
AKH Inc. designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits TM. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
In order to receive credit, participants must view the entire presentation, complete and submit an evaluation, and score at least 70% on the post-test. Certificates may be printed upon successful completion of the post-test. If you have questions about this CME activity, please contact AKH Inc. at firstname.lastname@example.org. Commercial Support Statements
This activity is supported through an educational grant from United Therapeutics Corporation.
Minimum System Requirements: • Pentium III, 600 MHz or Equivalent Processor • 512 MB of RAM • Windows XP, Vista, or 7. Or, Mac OS X • 800x600 Monitor Resolution • 16-bit Color • 16 bit Sound Card with Speakers
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The activity will take approximately 90 minutes to complete.
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This course is designed solely to provide the healthcare professional with information to assist in his/her practice and professional development and is not to be considered a diagnostic tool to replace professional advice or treatment. The course serves as a general guide to the healthcare professional, and therefore, cannot be considered as giving legal, nursing, medical, or other professional advice in specific cases. AKH Inc., the author(s) and the publisher specifically disclaim responsibility for any adverse consequences resulting directly or indirectly from information in the course, for undetected error, or through reader's misunderstanding of the content.